The State was created in 1991 out of the former Bendel State. Edo State lies roughly between longitude 06o 04'E and 06o 43'E and latitude 05o44' N and 07o34' N. It is bounded in the south by Delta State, in the west by Ondo State, in the north by Kogi State and in the east by Kogi and Anambra States. It occupies a land area of about 17,802 square kilometers.
Edo State is one of the more homogenous states in Nigeria. The cultural and linguistic affinities that exist among the various groups in the state points to this fact. A lot of the communities in the State trace their roots to the ancient kingdom of Benin. Customs, burial rites, diet and traditional modes of dress tend to be similar throughout the State. The political pattern and behaviour were based on a system under which both monarchial and republican ideas flourished in an integrated manner. The monarchial (or chieftaincy) system revolved largely on primogeniture, while the republican
element was reflected in the free selection by villages and communities of elders.Population
According to the UNFPA report 2003, Edo state has a poulation of 3.1 million people., With an annual growth rate of 2.8% while according to the USAID reports, in 2002, Edo State was estimated to have a population of 2.86 million (In 1991, 2.1million , of which 50.13% were males) making it similar in size to Jamaica (2.74m), and larger than Botswana (1.6m) and Trinidad and Tobago (1.1m). The adolescents and young adults (10-24 years of age), account for 32% of the population, making Edo State one of the States in Nigeria with a very high concentration of young people. Based on the 1963 census and sample census, its estimated that about 43% of the population of Edo State is less than 15 years of age. It is therefore likely that in line with the 1991 census figures distribution over 60% of the State are made up of the age group of 24 and below.
The State is multi religious and multi ethnic with Christianity, Islam and African Traditional religion as the most dominant Who Are The People Of Edo State?
Many communities in Edo State trace their descent to the ancient Benin Kingdom
hence there is a lot of linguistic and cultural affinity among the communities.
These communities include the
- Akoko Edo
There are also Igala, Igbira, Okpameri, Uneme Ososo, Urhobo, Izon and Yoruba
speaking communities present in the State.ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS
The administrative capital is Benin City, and the State is made up of 18 Local Government Areas. Other major towns in the State include Uromi, Ekpoma, Auchi, Sabongida-Ora, Ubiaja and Afuze.
Local Government and Headquarters
Akoko-Edo - Igarra
Igueben - Igueben
Egor - Uselu
Ikpoba-Okha - Idogbo
Esan Central - Irrua
Oredo - Benin City
Esan North-East - Uromi
Orhionmwon - Abudu
Esan South-East - Ubiaja
Ovia North East - Okada
Esan West - Ekpoma
Ovia South West - Iguobazuwa
Etsako Central - Fugar
Owan East - Afuze
Etsako East - Agenebode
Owan West - Sabongida Ora
Etsako West - Auchi
Uhunmwonde - Ehor
as HeadquartersPHYSICAL SETTING (Topography
Northern Plateau: The plateau ranges from 183 to 305 m (600 to 1000 ft) of basement rock with occasional granite peaks rising above 610 m (2000 ft). Its southern portion is mainly sandstone. The Afenmai hills rise to a height of 672 metres (2204 ft), making it the highest elevation in the State.
Orle Valley: The valley was formed by an east-west river which cut into the sandstone between the Northern Plateau and Esan Plateau. The Rivers Owan and Orle drain the Plateau to the west and east respectively.
Esan Plateau: The plateau is a continuation of the sandstone of the Northern Plateau and ranges from 213 to 305 metres (700 to 1000 ft). The north and south fall steeply to the Orle and Niger valleys while the south and west
are gradual gradients to the Benin lowlands.
Benin Lowlands: A sandy plain, marked with rivers, generally running towards the southwest. There are a few hills to the east and the lands are drained by the Rivers Osse, Orhionmwon and Ikpoba.
Swamp Forests: Areas of marsh vegetation lie to the south of the state and the land is bisected by creeks and rivers.CLIMATE
Edo State has a tropical climate characterised by two distinct seasons: the wet and dry seasons. The wet season occurs between April and October with a break in August, and an average rainfall ranging from 150 cm (59") in the extreme north of the State to 250 cm (98") in the south. The dry season lasts from November to April with a cold harmattan spell between December and January. The temperature averages about 25 °C (77 °F) in the rainy season, and about 28 °C (82 °F) in the dry season. The climate is humid tropical in the south and sub-humid in the north.VEGETATION
In the north, the area is mainly derived savannah. The oil palm grows in the wild. On higher levels the soil is gravelly, becoming sandy towards the Orle Valley. The Esan Plateau is made up of diverse vegetation, savannah in the north and forest in the south. Where deforestation has occurred, elephant grass and secondary growth take over. The soil is clayey or of porous red sand. Oil palm and rubber grow reasonably well. The Benin Lowlands used to be covered with a vast rain forest, but rubber plantations have displaced a lot of the original forests. Soil types range from low productive sand in the southeast to fertile clayey soil in the northwest. The riverine communities
in the south have mainly mangrove swamp vegetation.
ECONOMY -- AGRICULTURE
The main crops are rubber, oil palm, cocoa, yam, cassava, maize, rice and plantain. Sugar cane, cashew, oil palm (and its derivative products), groundnuts, soya beans, tomatoes, cotton and tobacco are also produced. Fruit like pineapples, coconuts, oranges, avocados, as well as green leafy vegetables, all grow abundantly in the State. There is also a significant animal husbandry industry, with cows, goats, pigs, rabbits and sheep being the main products. Edo State's riverine areas are prime areas for aquaculture projects. Such major research bodies as the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) are located in the State, and there is a strong agricultural extension programme.Principal industrial raw materials for agro-allied businesses are rubber, timber, maize and cassava. The main soil types in the State are reddish-yellow kind of ferralsols, dish clay, lathyritic clay, and fine hydromorphic soils.ECONOMY -- INDUSTRIES
Edo State is blessed with such industrial mineral resources as quartzite, marble, clay, limestone, chalk, gypsum, gold, petroleum, kaolin and lignite. Benin City is the site for numerous industrial outfits: soft drinks factories, two large breweries (including one of the largest breweries for Guinness Stout outside of Dublin, Ireland), wood and timber processing industries, textile mills, carpet manufacturers, floor tile producers, animal feeds industries, printing and publishing firms, pharmaceutical firms, and so on. A State-owned cement company is located at Okpella (Etsako Local Government Area [LGA]), close to substantial limestone deposits. Freedom Development Company (an indigenous company of more than 30 years experience) is undertaking marble chip production at Akoko-Edo; and garri mills (a local staple produced from cassava) are a regular part of the landscape.Petroleum is produced in Ovia and Orhionmwon LGAs, and exploration for "the black gold" is being undertaken in Oredo LGA. Associated gas production and proximity to gas pipelines running from the Niger Delta region to other parts of the country create the potential to utilize gas for industrial power generation.TRANSPORTATION
Benin City, as the State capital, is a major centre of traffic. Routes to Warri and Sapele (both in Delta State; they are major seaports and oil towns); to the eastern cities of Onitsha, Enugu, Calabar and Port Harcourt; and to the western cities of Ibadan, Abeokuta and the former political capital of Lagos, are especially well-travelled. A major federal trunk road runs east-to-west through Benin City, connecting Lagos and the western states, and incorporating the Benin-Shagamu Expressway. The A2 north-south route through Kaduna, Abuja, Lokoja, Auchi, Benin City and Warri, is also well-used. Buses and taxis of the operate on many routes in the main connecting service for all parts of the State. Intra-town services are also provided by the Edo Municipal Transport Service, as well as by the many private transportation companies in Benin City. Benin City has an airport that is serviced by Nigerian Airways, ADC Airlines, EAS Airlines, Kabo Air, etc. Industrial and Commercial Opportunities in Edo State
Edo State is blessed with abundant solid mineral and agro-based resources which can be harnessed by interested investors. The list below shows a comprehensive list of mineral and agro-based resources in each LGA of Edo State. Considered the availability of these resources, a number of projects could be established to harness them. There are existing private and government-owned manufacturing and processing industries in Edo State, such as Bendel Cement Company, Edo Pharmaceuticals, Bendel Brewery, Nigerian Bottling Company, the Bendel Feed and Flour Mills, and the Okomu Oil Palm Company. Nevertheless, the tempo of industrial and commercial activities in the State is fairly low. In this regard, assistance would be required from foreign investors in the following areas:
Development of Gele-Gele port
Sugar, rubber, timber and fruit juice processing.